All information on diabetes

At a glance

There are two main forms of diabetes mellitus:

  • comparatively rare type 1 diabetes and
  • much more common type 2 diabetes ( 95% of diabetes cases)
  • In addition, there are some rarer types of diabetes and so-called gestational diabetes

Similar to kidney disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus is often completely free of complaints at the beginning. The disease is therefore often only detected by chance during routine examinations. Many type 2 diabetics have such low symptoms that they see no reason to visit a doctor for a long time. Therefore, type 2 diabetes is often detected lately. Sometimes only when the disease has already caused consequential damage.

Further information

There is certainly also a genetic susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. However, most sufferers are overweight, eat too much and move too little. Because insulin no longer works optimally in this situation, the pancreas increases hormone production to repair the damage. In the long run, the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas begin to deplete, the glandular tissue inflames, and in the end the cells die. Unlike type 1 diabetes, in which insulin-producing cells die rapidly due to an autoimmune reaction, this process can be slowed down at any time in type 2 diabetes. Early diagnosis and preventive measures are required here.



Complications and subsequent diseases:

  • Nerve damage (polyneuropathy)
  • Damage to blood vessels (angiopathies)
    • Retinal damage (diabetic retinopathy)
    • Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy)
    • Poor wound healing e.g. Diabetic foot
    • heart failure (heart failure), coronary artery disease (CHD) and heart attack
    • Increased susceptibility to colonization with germs (skin infections)
    • Erectile dysfunction
  • Depressive mood or depression
  • Acidification of the blood – diabetic ketoacidosis


Urine diagnostics

  • In the case of ketoacidosis – miction parameters heaped urination
  • Urine odour after fresh fruit or acetone in the presence of ketonuria (possible sign of metabolic acidosis, usually caused by starvation or unadjusted diabetes mellitus)
  • Testing for glucose and ketone bodiesto detect and correct changes in metabolic status at an early stage
  • Microalbiminuriatest for early diagnosis of nephropathy as a follow-up complication of diabetes mellitus



  • dietary change
  • regular physical activity
  • blood sugar-lowering tablets (oral antidiabetics)
  • Insulin therapy


Did you know?

  • The number of people with diabetes mellitus has doubled worldwide in the last 30 years
  • Type 1 diabetes is the most common chronic disease in childhood and adolescence

Smoking increases risk of developing type 2 diabetes by about 50 percent


  • Schwarz, J. et al. (2018): Diabetes Mellitus, URL: https://www.netdoktor.de/krankheiten/diabetes-mellitus/, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Deutsche Diabetes Gesellschaft (DDG): Diagnostik, Therapie und Verlaufskontrolle des Diabetes mellitus im Kindes- und Jugendalter, URL: https://www.deutsche-diabetes-gesellschaft.de/leitlinien/evidenzbasierte-leitlinien.html, Abgerufen am 18.06.2019
  • Deutsche Diabetes Stiftung: Diabetes- was ist das eigentlich?, URL: https://www.diabetesstiftung.de/diabetes-was-ist-das-eigentlich, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Häussler, B. et al. (2010): Weißbuch Diabetes in Deitschland, Georg Thieme Verlag, 2nd edition
  • NZZ, Zeyer, A. : Den Krankheitsverlauf stoppen, URL: https://www.nzz.ch/wissenschaft/medizin/diabetes-typ-2-den-krankheitsverlauf-stoppen-ld.591634, Retrieved 18.06.2019
Status of information: Spring 2020