Most microbiological studies require the extraction of medium-beam urine. Mostly in the morning urine.
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Regarding measuring time and type, the following categories are mainly distinguished:
Extraction takes place at any time and without special precautions. It is the easiest way to extract urine samples.
It is important that this type of urine extraction is not suitable for microbiological examinations and analyses of the urinary sediment!
Medium-beam urine should be obtained from the first morning urine if possible, otherwise the last bubble emptying should be as long as possible.
Bladder puncture urine
The bladder puncture urine is obtained by sterile puncture of the filled bladder. In exceptional cases, bladder puncture urine is needed for microbiological diagnostics to obtain a urine sample that is certainly not contaminated with germs of the urethra or the external genital. For this purpose, urine (catheterurine) obtained by a sterile single-use catheter is usually sufficient.
Collective urine is collected over 24 hours, starting with the second morning urine. Afterwards, all urine is collected for one day in a urine collection container. The collection procedure ends with the recording of the first morning urine the following day.
Collective urine is particularly well suited for the determination of substances that are below the analytical measuring limit in the blood (e.g. rapidly metabolized or renal eliminated substances).
First morning urine
The extraction takes place from the first left urine in the morning. It is typically more concentrated and particularly suitable for bacterial examinations, sediment examinations, clinical-chemical analyses and protein diagnostics.
Second Morning Urine
The second morning urine is won at least two hours after the first morning urine. It can be used for many quantitative measures such as protein,enzymes, metabolites. However, these values must always be related to creatinine.
If the appropriate urine has not been used for special examinations, the significance of the analysis may be completely obsolete and, in the worst case, lead to an incorrect diagnosis.
- Roche Diagnostics Deutschland GmbH (2014): Kompendium der Urinanalyse. Urinteststreifen und Mikroskopie, 1-196
- Kuo, V. S. et al. (1992): “Proteinuria and its assessment in normal and hypertensive pregnancy”, Am. J. Obstet. Vol. 167, No.
- Meyer, N. L. et al. (1994) “Urinary dipstick protein: a poor predictor of absent or severe proteinuria”, Am. J. Obstet. Vol. 170, No. 1 Pt 1, pp. 137-141
- Halligan, A. W. F. et al. (1994) “Dipstick proteinuria: caveat emptor”, BJOG Int. J. Obstet. Vol. 106, No. 11, pp. 1113-1115
- Brown, M. A. & Buddie, M. L. (1995): “Inadequacy of Dipstick Proteinuria in Hypertensive Pregnancy”, N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol., Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 366-369
- Devillé, W. L. et al. (2004): “The urine dipstick test useful to rule out infections. A meta-analysis of the accuracy”, BMC Urol., Vol. 4, p. 4
- Graff, L. et al.: “Chemical Analysis of Urine”, in Graff’s textbook of routine urinalysis and body fluids