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All information on doping

At a glance

A doping test is mainly carried out on athletes to detect illicit doping.

To do this, the person to be checked must give a sample of his urine under supervision.

This means that the control staff observes the urine release in order to prevent manipulation.

Athletes under the age of 16 are allowed to give the urine sample without visual inspection.

The delivered urine sample, at least 90 milliliters, is divided approximately in a ratio of 2 to 1 on an A and a B bottle. If the urine volume is insufficient, the doping controller informs the tester that another sample must be taken.

The samples are then taken to an accredited laboratory. The laboratory determines the test results of the A-sample and stores the B-sample for a possible necessary subsequent check.

For more information

Chromatographic and enzyme immunological methods are mainly used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the substances.

The doping tests in the countries are carried out by national agencies, which operate independently and are controlled by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

Since 2004, WADA has published an annual doping list containing all relevant substances.


According to this are:

I. Prohibited substances and methods during and outside the competition

S0) Medicinally unauthorised active substances (general ban on all substances still in development and clinical trials)

S1) Anabolic active ingredients

S2) Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances and mimetics

S3) ß2 agonists

S4) Hormones and Metabolic Modulators

S5) Diuretics and masking substances

M1) Manipulation of blood and blood components

M2) Chemical and physical manipulations

M3) Gene and cell doping


II. Prohibited substances and methods during competition

In addition to the categories prohibited under S1-S5 and M1-M3, the following active substances are prohibited for competition:

S6) Stimulants

S7) Narcotics

S8) Cannabinoids

S9) Glucocorticoids


III. Prohibited substances in special sports

P1) Beta-Blocker


Urine rapid tests are not yet present in the field of doping, as the complexity of the analysis parameters can hardly be illustrated by simple tests.


  • WADA: The Doping Control Process, URL:, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • FIFA: Ablauf eines Urintest zur Dopingkontrolle, URL:, Abgerufen am 18.06.2019
  • FIFA: Ablauf eines Urintest zur Dopingkontrolle, URL:, Retrieded 18.06.2019
  • Müller, T. (2007): Mit ausgefeilten Tricks umgehen Dopingsünder die laschen Kontrollen, URL:, Retrieved on 18.06.2019
Status of information: 2022