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Measurement - Influencing Factors

All information on measurement - influencing factors

At a glance

To analyze urine, it must be obtained first.

Usually a urine measuring cup is used, which is filled by the subject on the toilet with fresh urine from the bladder.

The sample for a urine examination is usually obtained from the middle-radiation urine. This is the middle urine portion. This is not obtained at the beginning of the bladder emptying, but from the already running urinary ray.

In this way, impurities (e.g. epithelia) from the external genitalia and the outer sections of the urethra are prevented from entering the urine sample.

In addition, some urine tests are also carried out with the so-called 24-hour collection urine. For this purpose, the patient must, if possible, collect all his urine, which he releases within 24 hours, in a special vessel.

For more information

The urine test itself is carried out either in the form of a urine rapid test or by means of microscopic examination in the laboratory. A distinction is made between the urine status and a urine culture in which urine is examined for pathogens with the help of nutrient media.

At all stages of the urine examination (from preparation for sampling to the analysis itself) there are different influencing factors which can have different effects depending on the focus of the study.


Some key ones are listed here:


  • Universitätsklinikum Halle: Präanalytik, URL:, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Wieland, E. (2017): Leitfaden für die Präanalytik, URL:ür_die_Präanalytik_März_2017.pdf, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Imhof, P.R., et al. (1972). Excretion of urinary casts after administration of diuretics. BMJ, 2, 199
  • Urinstatus, URL:, Retrieved 18.06.2019
Status of information: 2022