Desire to have children / Contraception

All information on the topic of desire to have children / contraception

At a glance

The median monthly probability of achieving a successful pregnancy naturally is about 33% in demonstrably fertile couples under 25 years of age – based on the first attempt to get pregnant. On average, it is about 20-25%.

The natural fertility of the woman is good until the age of 30, after which it decreases continuously. From the age of 35, female fertility decreases more significantly and after the age of 40 fertility is low.

The average age of married mothers is 30 years at the birth of the first child and about 32 years at the birth of the second child. The average age of unmarried mothers is around 28 at the birth of the first child.

In the case of unfulfilled desire to have children, the median age of the women undergoing treatment is 36 years and that of men is 39 years.

In order to measure the exact time of ovulation in the case of a child’s wish, a so-called ovulation test can be used. It can help to get pregnant faster by indicating the fertile days.

For more information

The normal female cycle is controlled by hormones that are formed by various glands in the body. First, the hypothalamus forms a hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This hormone stimulates another gland, the pituitary gland (pituitary gland), which in turn releases two hormones essential for reproduction: the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH). Both hormones act directly on the ovaries during a menstrual cycle.

The amount and function of the hormones (LH & FSH) changes over the course of the menstrual cycle. The hormone FSH first stimulates the growth of the small yew glasses (follicles) in the ovaries.

When an egg matures to the middle of the cycle in the follicle, there is a steep increase in LH concentration. This increase triggers ovulation, which releases the egg from the follicle. The fertilization of the egg takes place in the fallingopian tube.

Ovulation is the detachment of the ovum from the female ovary (ovary) and the subsequent uptake from the ecrum (tuba uterina).

Since you should not have urinated for a test at least four hours beforehand, it is recommended to perform the ovulation test with the morning urine.

An ovulation test measures the concentration of the ovulation-triggering LH hormone via an indicator. About 24 to 36 hours before the egg detaches from the ovary, the LH level in the urine rises significantly. It can be made visible on the test strip with the help of appropriate antibodies.

The average cycle length determines when to start the first tests so as not to miss ovulation. With a cycle length of 28 days, the tests should be started approximately on the 11th day after the start of the last menstruation..

There are ovulation tests that measure estrogen and estradiol levels in addition to the LH. The growing follicle produces the female hormone estradiol. Its level rises a little earlier than that of the LH and then drops abruptly just before ovulation.

In addition, ovulation tests are also available in various sensitivities. The sensitivity required depends on the individual LH concentration during the cycle. Each woman has different hormone levels.

Most ovulation tests have a sensitivity of 10 mIU/ml, 20 mIU/ml, 25 mIU/ml and 30 mIU/ml. A test with 10 mIU/ml is much more sensitive than a test with 30 mIU/ml. This means that it will notice an LH increase earlier than a test with 30 mIU/ml.

Sources

  • Arbeitsgruppe NFP (2018): Natürlich und sicher – Das Praxisbuch, Familienplanung mit Sensiplan. Trias Verlag, 21-35
  • Struck, D. (2019): Natürlich verhüten: Sicher, pillenfrei, gefühlsecht, Gräfe und Unzer Verlag, S. 106-107
  • Baur, Siegfried (2010): Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen der Natürlichen Familienplanung, Imago Hominis, Band 17, Heft 4, S. 275; Institut für medizinische Anthropologie und Bioethik
  • Statistisches Bundesamt: Bevölkerung –Geburten, URL: https://www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Gesellschaft-Umwelt/Bevoelkerung/Geburten/_inhalt.html , Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Antwerpes, F. et al.: Ovulation, URL: https://flexikon.doccheck.com/de/Ovulation, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Kompetenznetz Praenatalmedizin: Fruchtbarkeit und Kinderwunsch, URL: http://www.praenat-koeln.de/kinderwunsch/fruchtbarkeit-und-kinderwunsch/, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Kinderwunschzentrum.org: Kinderwunsch Leitfaden – Die Ovulationsinduktion, URL: https://www.kinderwunschzentrum.org/fileadmin/media/Ovulationsinduktion.pdf , Retrieved 18.06.2019
Status of information: Autumn 2019