Care

All information on care

At a glance

With the increasing number of older people in the population, the proportion of people in need of care is increasing at the same time. In Germany alone, this share increased from 2.0 million to 2.9 million between 1999 and 2015. On the same assumptions, the number of people in need of care can be expected to rise to 4.8 million by 2060.

With age, the risk of falling ill also increases dramatically. Multiple diseases are the rule rather than the exception. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infections are particularly common.

In addition, the feeling of thirst is reduced in old age. The water content of the body decreases because the fat-free mass increases. At the same time, the kidney’s ability to concentrate the urine decreases. Falls and fractures are therefore very common consequences of dizziness and weakness due to an undetecteddehydration.

For more information

However, many diseases can be addressed early by good monitoring and prophylaxis. Among them some by urine measurements:

  1. Urinary tract infections: Acute cystitis is particularly common in women. This is because women have a much shorter urethra than men, making it easier for pathogenic germs to enter the bladder. Favorable factors here are permanent catheters, stay in a nursing home or hospital and in men the enlargement of the prostate.

Typical symptoms: Frequent urge to urinate with small portions of urine, difficult urination, nocturnal urination, pain in the bladder area and bladder cramps.

Urine monitoring: Monitoring of bacteria and leukocytes in the urine, miction parameters such as miction frequency, given amount,if necessary indication about the degree of emptying of the bladder: so-called urinary retention (residual amounts in the bladder promote bacterial formation).

  1. Kidney disease: With age, the function of the kidney decreases (approx. from the age of 40). According to the German Kidney Foundation, 4-6 million people in Germany have impaired kidney function. 80,000 patients are dependent on regular machine blood washing (dialysis), 23,000 have already had to undergo a kidney transplant. With up to 2 million people in Germany alone, the disease is chronic, but only a third of those affected know about the disease. The total cost of treatment for renal insufficiency is €3 billion per year.

Urine monitoring: General monitoring of the miction,whether the kidneys are working correctly. I.e. frequency of miction, quantity delivered, delivery characteristics (normal or dripping over long periods of time), determination of microalbumins and density of urine.

  1. Incontinence: about 10 million people affected in Germany, urinary incontinence is the most common chronic disease among women, in nursing homes approx. 60% urinary and 24% stool incontinence. Bladder weakness in over-65s: 18% women/ 9% men.

Urine monitoring: Monitoring of the miction. I.e. frequency of miction,quantity delivered, delivery characteristics (normal or dripping over long periods of time), density of urine. This is followed by support for diagnosis & therapy (urge incontinence, mixed incontinence, stress incontinence).

  1. Gout: In Germany, about 1% of the population suffers from gout. Gout is most common in men over the age of 40 and in women after menopause. In the event of a gout attack, the innate immune system is activated. Uric acid crystals (MNU crystals) are the cause of this activation: the crystals preferably accumulate in joints. They are recognized by the immune system as foreign and absorbed within the joints by the feeding cells of the immune system (macrophages). Also, acid-based kidney stonesform more easily if the acid level in the blood remains at a high level for a long time. Common cause: latent acidosis (acidification due to poor diet)

Urine monitoring: Monitoring of pH levels in urine; Control volume flow. Detection of signs of urinary occlusion.

Sources

  • BMBF: Viele Erkrankungen werden mit dem Alter häufig, URL: https://www.gesundheitsforschung-bmbf.de/de/viele-erkrankungen-werden-mit-dem-alter-haufig-6786.php, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • gesundheit.de: Zu wenig Flüssigkeit bei älteren Menschen , URL: https://www.gesundheit.de/medizin/alter-und-pflege/ernaehrung-im-alter/zu-wenig-fluessigkeit-bei-aelteren-menschen, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Die Nephrologen: Nieren, Nierenerkrankungen und Nierenpatienten, URL: https://www.die-nephrologen.de/fakten.html, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Baumann, S. (2018): Experteninterview zum Thema Blasenentzündung, URL:https://www.lifeline.de/diseases/bubble-ending/expertinterview/, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • INSENIO: Inkontinenz Zahlen und Fakten – Infografik, URL: https://www.insenio.de/ratgeber/inkontinenz-zahlen-und-fakten, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Engel, B. et al. (2017): Therapieoptionen bei Gicht, URL: https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/187305/Therapieoptionen-bei-Gicht , Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Klöckner, L. (2019):Nierensteine: Symptome, Ursache & Behandlung, URL: https://www.onmeda.de/krankheiten/nierensteine.html , Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Bundesverband Niere e.V.: Nierenerkrankung erkennen, URL: https://www.bundesverband-niere.de/bundesverband/infomaterial-downloads/praevention.html, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • Al-Badr, A., & Al-Shaikh, G. (2013): Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women: A review. Sultan Qaboos University medical journal, 13(3), 359-367
  • Rheuma Plus (08/2015): Gicht – Hohe Harnsäurewerte treiben die Kosten hoch, URL: https://paperity.org/p/73752731/gicht-hohe-harnsaurewerte-treiben-die-kosten-hoch, Retrieved 18.06.2019
  • INSENIO: Inkontinenz Zahlen und Fakten – Infografik, URL: https://www.insenio.de/ratgeber/inkontinenz-zahlen-und-fakten, Retrieved 18.06.2019
Status of information: Autumn 2019