In acute viral infections, the virus is usually present in the blood, throat and faeces, but in some cases it is also present in cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Especially in the case of virus-induced infections (especially adenoviruses) in the urogenital system, viruses are easily detected in urine.
Viruses are usually detected in urine in three ways:
1. detection of inclusion bodies in the cells of the urinary sediment
2. specific immunofluorescence of the cells
3. isolation of the virus in tissue culture
Viral infections in which viruria is more important are:
– Measles Virus
– human cytomegalovirus
– Human adenoviruses
– Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PAN)
– Enteroviruses (newborns: hepatitis and myocarditis)
Depending on the infection, further transmission through urine can be more or less important. Essential ways and means are:
– Lubrication infection
– Inhalation of the urine aerosol during urination (droplet infection)
– Drying and spreading of the viruses via the air
In the case of animal viruses, these are transmitted by contact with the urine of host animals or by inhalation of the dried-up host urine. For example, in hantaviruses and arena viruses.
With regard to corona viruses (MERS-CoV, e.g. COVID-19, SARS), there are indeed case reports in which viral RNA of MERS-CoV has been found in the respiratory tract, blood, urine and stool. Although the MERS corona virus is particularly prevalent in the lower respiratory tract, small amounts of virus have been detected in these samples. In recent studies on COVID-19 patients, an influence on kidney function was also found in certain patient groups, including acute kidney damage and proteinuria. The link is currently being investigated in more detail in studies – especially which groups are particularly at risk.
With regard to Medipee Technology, there is no concrete test for these viruses available yet. This is part of development work. However, the pandemic spread of fever-causing viruses could be monitored by measuring the urine temperature across the country. Infection nests could thus be located at an early stage. If a correlation of positive values in the urine of albumin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and COVID-19 is confirmed in certain patient groups, urine monitoring via the Medipee system could also be a suitable approach.